below is a full list of the different starting skills and abilities of all the races in skyrim. I suggest that you go for breton if you are looking to have the easiest time with the master difficulty. What you should be looking for are basic skills (for instance resistance to poison) rather than starting abilities or spells because they can be easily acquired later. The best races are the Breton for the magic resistance and the Argonian for the underwater breathing.
Resist Poisen 50%
Resist Disease 50%
Command animal (once a day animal becomes ally for 60 seconds)
Skills: +10 archery; +5 alchemy, light armor, lockpicking, pickpocket, sneak
Resist poison 50%
Adrenaline rush (once a day 10x stamina regeneration for 60 seconds)
Skills: +10 one-handed; +5 alteration, archery, block, destruction, smithing
Berserker (once a day deal double weapon damage and take half damage for 60 seconds).
Skills: +10 heavy armor; +5 block, enchanting, one-handed, smithing, two-handed
Resist frost 50%
Battlecry (once a day cause targets to flee for 30 seconds)
Skills: +10 two-handed; +5 block, light armor, one-handed, smithing, speech
Additional starting spell: Eye of night (spell that lets you see better at night)
Skills: +10 sneak; +5 alchemy, archery, lockpicking, pickpocket, one-handed
Imperial Luck (find more gold coins?)
Voice of the emperor (once a day calm nearby enemies for 60 seconds)
Skills: +10 restoration; +5 block, destruction, enchanitng, heavy armor, one-handed
Highborn (once a day 10x magicka regeneration)
Additional starting spell: Fury (low level creates attack each other).
Skills: +10 illusion; +5 alteration, conjuration, destruction, enchanting, restoration
Resist fire 50%
Ancestor’s Wrath (once a day cloak self in fire for 60 seconds).
Additional starting spell: Sparks (lightning sparks that deal 8 damage of shock dmage to health and magicka per second)
Skills: +10 destruction; +5 alchemy, alteration, illusion, light armor, sneak
Resist Magic 25%
Dragonskin (once a day absorb 50% magicka for 60 seconds)
Additional starting spell: Conjure familiar (conjure ally familiar for 60 seconds)
Skills: +10 conjuration; +5 alchemy, alteration, illusion, restoration, speech
Resist Disease 50%
Histskin (once a day 10x health regeneration)
Skills: +10 lockpicking; +5 alteration, light armor, pickpocket, restoration, sneak
This was a guide to choosing your race in skyrim. In it I went over the advantages that each race has and evaluated the advantages of that race compared to other races. If you are looking for a casual playthrough there is no real advantage or disadvantage with going with any one race, but for the higher difficulties it will be much easier if you use either an argonian or a breton.
Original YouTube video: